A range of crop production practices that could be effectively used to reduce the population of fruit flies are commonly refereed as cultural control techniques for fruit fly management and it does not include insecticide application.
Some of the commonly used techniques are:
1. Choosing a tolerant variety:
Many tropical fruits such as Mangosteen, Rambutan and langsat are least damaged by fruit flies. Only when the fruits are damaged, cracked or over-ripe some damage may occur. Similarly, pumpkin, zucchini and some other cucurbit crops are less susceptible to the melon flies. However, currently there are good resistant varieties against melon flies are available to the farmers.
2. Crop and Field sanitation
The collection and destruction of infested, fallen, damaged, over-ripe fruit are extremely important to reduce the population of the fruit flies, which otherwise often becomes the important source for the fruit fly breeding. If field sanitation is practiced at community scale as envisioned in FFS learning approach, it could be very useful method for reducing fruit fly population. There are many known and proven methods of field sanitation exits for the fruit flies e.g. Augmentoria developed by Hawaii Area-wide fruit fly IPM Programme etc. In most cases, if such discarded fruits are kept in sealed plastic bags under sun for a period of 10 days to a week, most maggot and other stages tends to die. In some cases deep burial to a depth of 1 meter and thick covering by soil could reduce the probability of survival of the fruit fly maggots and other life stages.
|Fruit fly lays egg in the fruits||The eggs hatch into maggots within the fruit|
|The fruit deccays and maggots are released in the soil||The maggots pupates in the soil and adult emerges and infects the crop once again|
|When the matured fruits falls on the ground|
1. Pick the fruits fallen on the ground
2. Destroy them by soaking in water topped by layer of kerosine
3. Damaged fruit on the tree should be destroyed
4. Do not bury the infested fruit
3. Raking and Ploughing:
1. Mature larvae enters the soil, pupate and overwinters under unfavourable condititions
2. Raking exposes the pupae to sunlight, predators and kills thems
3. Raking or ploughing @ two times-two weeks after colour break and again three weeks later around and below the canopy to a 6-cm depth